From: Kofi on
Different species of helminths may have different effects on
innate/sympathetic response at different parts of their lifecycle. The
presence of phosphorylcholine in ES-62 suggests to me the involvement of
the cholinergic nervous system, which balances out sympathetic flow.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Nov;24(11):1775-80.

Preventive effects of Schistosoma japonicum ova on
trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis and bacterial translocation
in mice.
Zhao Y, Zhang S, Jiang L, Jiang J, Liu H.
ZhongShan Hospital, Fudan University, Gastroenterology, Shanghai, China.

AIMS: To evaluate the preventive effects of Schistosoma japonicum ova on
trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis and bacterial
translocation in mice. METHODS: BALB/c mice were randomly divided into
three groups: control group; TNBS(+)Ova(-) group; and TNBS(+)Ova(+)
group. Mice of the TNBS(+)Ova(+) group were exposed to 10 000
freeze-killed S. japonicum ova by i.p. injection on day 1 and day 11. On
day 15, mice were challenged with TNBS to induce colitis. The following
variables were assessed: colon pathological changes; serum expression of
tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma)
and interleukin-10 (IL-10); expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in
colon; IFN-gamma, IL-10 and TLR4 mRNA expression in colon; and the
bacterial translocation rate. RESULTS: Compared to TNBS(+)Ova(-) group,
the colonic inflammation in the TNBS(+)Ova(+) group were relieved. A
highly significant elevation of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were observed in
the TNBS-induced colitis group. After exposure to the eggs, IFN-gamma
was significantly decreased, while TNF-alpha was similar to that of the
TNBS(+)ova(-) group. No obvious variation was seen in IL-10 expression
in TNBS-induced colitis, compared to the controls. Exposure to the eggs
led to a significant upregulation of IL-10 expression. TLR4 expression
was elevated after injected with TNBS and was downregulated in the eggs
group. Less intestinal bacterial translocation frequency was observed
when exposed to eggs. CONCLUSION: S. japonicum ova can prevent the
TNBS-induced colitis and reduce the bacterial translocation frequency in
mice. The mechanisms were supposed to be due to the regulation of
T-helper cell 1/2 balance and TLR4 expression.

PMID: 20136961

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;666:88-94. Related Citations, LinkOut

Immunomodulatory activity and therapeutic potential of the filarial
nematode secreted product, ES-62.
Harnett W, Harnett MM.
Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of
Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.

ES-62 is a protein that is actively secreted by filarial nematodes
during parasitism of the vertebrate host. The molecule is able to
directly interact with a number of cells of the immune system including
B-lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages and mast cells. Interaction
appears to be dependent on complexing with TLR4 and results in
modulation of the activity of a number of signal transduction molecules
including MAP kinases, PI-3 kinase and NF-kappaB. Immunomodulatory
activity of ES-62 appears to be largely due to the presence of
phosphorylcholine (PC) moieties covalently attached to N-type glycans.
The net effect of ES-62's interaction with the immune system is the
generation of an anti-inflammatory immunological phenotype. As a
consequence of this, ES-62 demonstrates striking drug-like activity in
models of disease associated with aberrant inflammation, in particular
those associated with autoimmunity and allergy.

Publication Types:
* Review

PMID: 20054977

In schistosomiasis, a major human parasitic disease caused by helminths,
different life-stages of the parasite contribute to the developing host
immune response. To increase our understanding of the mechanisms that
play a role in shaping the host immune responses, we have investigated
the effects of schistosome glycoconjugates on the phenotype of dendritic
cells (DCs), which form a crucial link between the innate and the
adaptive immunity; Schistosoma mansoni worm glycolipids induce DC
activation as indicated by upregulation of the maturation markers CD80,
CD86 and MHC-II, as well as the production of the cytokines
interleukin-12 p40 (IL-12 p40), IL-10, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor
necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Co-culture of glycolipid-primed DCs
with naive T cells results in skewing of the T cell response towards a
Th1 profile. Remarkably, the DC activation is dependent on fucosylated
glycan moieties of the glycolipids. On the DCs, the C-type lectin
DC-SIGN and TLR4 are both critically involved in the induced activation,
as was demonstrated by using monoclonal antibodies that block
interaction of these receptors with the glycolipids. Furthermore,
whereas the worm glycolipids were not able to activate HEK 293 cells
expressing TLR4, they did show TLR4 activation after introduction of
DC-SIGN in the HEK 293-TLR4 cells. Our data provide evidence for a novel
function of DC-SIGN as an essential co-receptor for TLR4-induced
activation of human DCs. This mechanism of TLR4 activation by worm
glycolipids may contribute to eliciting Th1 immune responses in
schistosome infection [PMID 20170964]
From: Kofi on
> > Different species of helminths may have different effects on
> > innate/sympathetic response at different parts of their lifecycle.
> > The presence of phosphorylcholine in ES-62 suggests to me the
> > involvement of the cholinergic nervous system, which balances out
> > sympathetic flow.
>
> Do you maintain that eating raw beef could introduce parasites and
> thus prevent celiac?
>

The parasites from raw beef tend to be pretty unhealthy but there are
some helminths in the water supply that confer substantial protection
against autoimmune disease without many negative side effects.
From: Kofi on
In article <ok2ie7x67p.ln2(a)jeeves.gnet>, Trawley Trash
<trash(a)invalid.invalid> wrote:

> On Mon, 07 Jun 2010 19:30:00 -0600
> Kofi <kofi(a)anon.un> wrote:
>
> > The parasites from raw beef tend to be pretty unhealthy but there are
> > some helminths in the water supply that confer substantial protection
> > against autoimmune disease without many negative side effects.
>
> So helminths in raw beef are unhealthy, but the helminths in
> fecal-contaminated water are good for us. Is that what
> you mean?

It depends on the helminth species. Some of these can be quite
dangerous when they're not well adapted to life in their host - like
malaria. All or most of these helminths appear to suppress
autoimmunity. Even in M.S. patients, having a tapeworm or malaria makes
M.S. more tolerable than not having a helminth infection.

You want a species that won't cause collateral damage like the one sold
by Ovamed. There are other clinical trials taking place using other
species.

>
> I confess I do have a problem with an unstated assumption behind
> your postings: People who cannot eat gluten are ill, but people
> with intestinal parasites are healthy.
>

It depends on the "parasite" but even thinking in terms of "parasite" is
misleading. When the helminths are relatively harmless, you should
think of them more as "probiotics" like the bacteria and fungi lining
the gut.

It's not clear that helminths can be effectively used to treat Celiac
the way they've been useful in Crohn's however it does look likely that
the lack of helminth infection/colonization is what leaves one largely
vulnerable to developing an autoimmune disease in the first place. In
my personal opinion, I'd expect helminths to be effective for Celiac at
least to some extent until proven otherwise.
From: Taka on
On Jun 21, 1:15 pm, Trawley Trash <tr...(a)invalid.invalid> wrote:
> On Thu, 17 Jun 2010 01:28:10 -0600
>
> Kofi <k...(a)anon.un> wrote:
> > It depends on the helminth species.  Some of these can be quite
> > dangerous when they're not well adapted to life in their host - like
> > malaria.  All or most of these helminths appear to suppress
> > autoimmunity.  
>
>   There is no such thing as autoimmunity.  The mechanism for
>   detecting "self" from "not self" comes from religion and
>   not science.  
>
> > Even in M.S. patients, having a tapeworm or malaria
> > makes M.S. more tolerable than not having a helminth infection.
>
>   What Helminths do is lower immunity so that they will not be
>   rejected by their hosts.  In cases of allergy (such as autoimmunity)
>   or transplants they might help, but lowering immunity has other
>   dangers.
>
> > You want a species that won't cause collateral damage like the one
> > sold by Ovamed.  There are other clinical trials taking place using
> > other species.
>
>   You cannot fiddle with the immune system without causing collateral
>   damage.
>
> > It depends on the "parasite" but even thinking in terms of "parasite"
> > is misleading.  When the helminths are relatively harmless, you
> > should think of them more as "probiotics" like the bacteria and fungi
> > lining the gut.
>
>   I am in the process of rethinking probiotics.  The whole
>   idea of "good" bacteria and "bad" bacteria is another inappropriate
>   intrusion of religion into medicine.  Bacteria and fungi and helminths
>   do what they do.  Whether the result is good or bad depends on
>   detailed circumstances and not on general principles.  They may
>   be good in one case and bad in another.

such as if you are carrier of the HLA-B27 antigen ...

> > It's not clear that helminths can be effectively used to treat Celiac
> > the way they've been useful in Crohn's however it does look likely
> > that the lack of helminth infection/colonization is what leaves one
> > largely vulnerable to developing an autoimmune disease in the first
> > place.  
>
>   <choke> Autoimmune diseases are allergies.  Allergies are hard coded
>   in our DNA.  We need to use our brain to control our environment
>   and stay healthy.  People want to talk about the rainbow
>   and how God made everything perfect just for us, but they forget
>   the part about being kicked out of Eden and surviving by the
>   sweat of our brow.
>
>   We are diverging into different species.  Our DNA determines that
>   we cannot all live in the same environment or eat the same food.
>   Instead of helping people to find an environment that is good for
>   them, you want to alter them so that they are the same.  This is
>   invasive medicine, bad medicine.  We do not understand how the
>   body functions well enough to make these kinds of changes.
>
>   "Above all do no harm."
>
> > In my personal opinion, I'd expect helminths to be effective
> > for Celiac at least to some extent until proven otherwise.
>
>   However you plan to introduce them, the answer is still *no*.

From: Kofi on
> > It depends on the helminth species. Some of these can be quite
> > dangerous when they're not well adapted to life in their host - like
> > malaria. All or most of these helminths appear to suppress
> > autoimmunity.
>
> There is no such thing as autoimmunity. The mechanism for
> detecting "self" from "not self" comes from religion and
> not science.

Well, have a chat with God, honey. I'm autoimmune. However much I'd
like it to go away because you don't "believe" in it, it hasn't happened.

>
> > Even in M.S. patients, having a tapeworm or malaria
> > makes M.S. more tolerable than not having a helminth infection.
>
> What Helminths do is lower immunity so that they will not be
> rejected by their hosts.

They are not lowering immunity. They are shifting it. For instance, if
your immune system is tied up in knots because it is targeting its own
cells with autoantibodies (anti-IL-10 antibodies in M.S. spring to
mind), then helminths can improve immune function by putting a stop to
that self interference. For another example, antibodies against GM-CSF
can impair macrophage function.

Suppressing autoantibody production in either of these two examples
would "raise" immune system function, not lower it.

> In cases of allergy (such as autoimmunity)
> or transplants they might help, but lowering immunity has other
> dangers.

You don't understand the immune system. You're not "lowering" anything;
you're simply shifting around various branches.

Tregs - a class of cell stimulated by helminth infection - also fight
viral infection. Actually having helminths will lower your risk for
certain kinds of cancer by lowering your inflammation but also by
lowering your risk of viral infection. Viruses often set off both
autoimmune problems and cancer development.

>
> > You want a species that won't cause collateral damage like the one
> > sold by Ovamed. There are other clinical trials taking place using
> > other species.
>
> You cannot fiddle with the immune system without causing collateral
> damage.

Which is what we did when we started clearing helminths out of the
modern human gut and dosing ourselves with broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Some of that might have been necessary for broad human health but the
rest of us have to live with the negative side effects.

>
> > It depends on the "parasite" but even thinking in terms of "parasite"
> > is misleading. When the helminths are relatively harmless, you
> > should think of them more as "probiotics" like the bacteria and fungi
> > lining the gut.
>
> I am in the process of rethinking probiotics. The whole
> idea of "good" bacteria and "bad" bacteria is another inappropriate
> intrusion of religion into medicine.

If you don't want to listen to the scientific record, then fine. But
don't accuse scientists working on the immune system of following your
own peculiar version of "religious" dogma.

> > It's not clear that helminths can be effectively used to treat Celiac
> > the way they've been useful in Crohn's however it does look likely
> > that the lack of helminth infection/colonization is what leaves one
> > largely vulnerable to developing an autoimmune disease in the first
> > place.
>
> <choke> Autoimmune diseases are allergies.

No. Allegies are technically abnormal antibody responses to otherwise
innocuous foreign material - like soy, for instance.

Autoimmunity refers (typically) to the antibody-based targeting of your
own tissue and proteins in those tissues. Hence Celiac is an autoimmune
disease not simply because it's a bad reaction to wheat but because that
reaction also triggers the release of autoantibodies to targets like
transglutaminase, a molecule necessary to the functioning of your body.

> Allergies are hard coded
> in our DNA.

Some are, like chitin, but most are acquired through the B cell antibody
system.